Studies of the response to nuclear emergencies with the release of gaseous and dispersed radioactive substances into the atmosphere allowed us to develop a procedure for the practical implementation of this method. The emergency response method is aimed at depositing hazardous radioactive substances from the atmosphere that enter the atmosphere during man-made accidents at nuclear power plants and other facilities for the storage and processing of radioactive materials. The developed procedure with the proposed algorithm of actions operates within the framework of a unified state system of civil protection. The presented procedure allows solving three main tasks on the elimination of emergency consequences: monitoring of the affected area, taking effective management decisions and direct influence on the affected area. The basis for making effective management decisions is to predict the dynamics of radioactively contaminated areas, predict the intensity of precipitation with various methods of artificial deposition and predict the effectiveness of deposition effects on the dynamics of changes in contaminated areas. In order to expand the capabilities of available methods for predicting contaminated areas, their modification has been proposed taking into account deposition features. The use of this procedure allows minimizing the scale of major emergencies at regional and state levels. Due to the use of artificial deposition methods, as provided for in the procedure, there is the possibility of depositing dangerous radioactive substances from the atmosphere from a height of several kilometers, which cannot be implemented by other known methods. The developed algorithm of actions and the procedure for implementing the emergency response method by artificially initiated deposition are the basis for the development of a procedure for practical emergency rescue units during emergency response at regional and state levels. Thus, there is a reason to believe that the use of the proposed procedure will improve the efficiency of response to man-made emergency with the release of hazardous radioactive substances to the atmosphere.
2. Isaeva, L.K. (2000). Ecology of fires, man-made and natural disasters. Moscow, Akademiya GPS MVD Rossii, 301.
3. Kustov M.V. (2016). Тhe study of formation and acid precipitation dynamics as a result of big natural and man-made fires. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 10 (72), pp. 11-17. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2016.59685
4. NRA. Readings of environmental radiation level by emergency monitoring. Retrieved from http://radioactivity.nsr.go.jp/en/list/207/list-201103.html
5. Stohl, A. (2012). Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition. Atmos. Chem. Phys, 12, pp. 2313-2343.
6. Zheng, J., Tagami, K., Watanabe, Y. et al. (2012). Isotopic evidence of plutonium release into the environment from the Fukushima DNPP accident. Sci. Rep, 2, pp. 304-311.
7. Emergency Response Guidebook (2016). U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Washington, 136.
8. Dubinin, D., Korytchenko, K., Lisnyak, A., Hrytsyna, I., Trigub, V. (2018). Improving the installation for fire extinguishing with finely¬ dispersed water. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 10 (92), pp. 38-43. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.127865.
9. Korytchenko, К., Sakun, О., Dubinin, D., Khilko, Y., Slepuzhnikov, E., Nikorchuk, A., Tsebriuk, I. (2018). Experimental investigation of the fire-extinguishing system with a gas-detonation charge for fluid acceleration. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 5 (93), pp. 47-54. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.134193.
10. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/ Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident (2016). Volumes I and II, U.S. Army Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear School, USA, 136.
11. Yoshenko, V.I. (2006). Resuspension and redistribution of radionucleotides during grassland and forest ﬁres in the Chornobyl exclusion zone. Part II: Modeling the transport process, J. Environ, Radioactiv, 86, pp. 260–278.
12. Pospelov, B., Rybka, E., Meleshchenko, R., Borodych, P., Gornostal, S. (2019). Development of a method for rapid detection of dangerously polluted atmosphere in cities using recurrent measures. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (97), pp. 34-40.
13. Pospelov, B., Andronov, V., Rybka, E., Meleshchenko, R., Gornostal, S. (2018). Analysis of correlation dimensionality of the state of a gas medium at early ignition of materials. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 5 (95), pp. 25-30.
14. Brennan, W.J., Schultz, P.A. (2009). Atmospheric aerosol properties and climate impacts. U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product, 128.
15. Jin, R., Wang, W., Song, W., Wang, Z. (2012). Tianjin precipitation feature and analysis of weather modification influence. Proceedings of the 11th WMO scientific conference on weather modification, Bali, Indonesia, pp. 127 132.
16. Abdulla, M.Sc., Al Mandoos, A.Y. (2012). Analysis of the cumulonimbus clouds characteristics and the efficiency of the precipitation enhancement over the eastern area of the UAE, Beograd, 119.
17. Kustov, M.V., Kalugin, V.D., Tutunik, V.V., Tarakhno, E.V. (2019). Physicochemical principles of the technology of modified pyrotechnic compositions to reduce the chemical pollution of the atmosphere. Chemistry and Chemical Technology Issues, 1, pp. 92-99. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.32434/0321-4095-2019-122-1-92-99
18. IAEA-TECDOC-1162. Generic procedures for assessment and response during a radiological emergency. IAEA, Vienna, 2000, 193.
19. Nuclear accident knowledge taxonomy. IAEA, Vienna, 52.
20. Severe accident management programmes for nuclear power plants. IAEA, Vienna, 2009, 83.
21. Methodology for the prediction and assessment of radioactive contamination of air, soil, water bodies, as well as possible radiation doses in the event of radiation accidents at AES for various variants of meteorological conditions. Moscow, Goskomgidromet, 1988, 100.
22. Radiation Safety Standards of Ukraine (NRBU-97). Kyiv, 115 p. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/rada/ show/v0062282-97
23. Ivlev, L.S., Dovgalyuk, YU.A. (1999). Physics of Atmospheric Aerosol Systems. SPb, NIIKH SPbGU, 194.
24. Haryanto, U., Goenawan, R.D., Harsanti, D. The development of hygroscopic cloud seeding flare in indonesia: evaluation and measurement of distribution particles. Retrieved from http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/ arep/wwrp/new/documents/OBS.Haryanto_Indonesia_paper_1.pdf
25. Kozlov, V.N., Klingo, V.V., Lihachev, A.V., Okunev, S.M., Scherbakov, A.P., Schukin, G.G. (2002). The procedure for carrying out work on the artificial induction of precipitation from convective clouds in the fight against forest fires on board light-engine aircraft. SPb, Gidrometeoizdat, 24.
26. The main provisions of Energoatom preparedness and response system to NPP emergencies. PL-D.0.03.089-15, Kyiv, 2015, 76.
27. UNSCEAR 2000. Exposures and effects of the Chornobyl accident (Annex J). New York: United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/ annexj.pdf
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