Analysis of Possible Causes of NPP Emergencies to Minimize Risk of Their Occurrence

Keywords

nuclear power plant, emergency, NPP operational event, internal and external factors, emergency preparedness and response system

How to Cite

Popov, O., ІatsyshynA., Kovach, V., Artemchuk, V., Taraduda, D., Sobyna, V., Sokolov, D., Dement, M., Yatsyshyn, T., & Matvieieva, I. (2019). Analysis of Possible Causes of NPP Emergencies to Minimize Risk of Their Occurrence. Nuclear and Radiation Safety, (1(81), 75-80. https://doi.org/10.32918/nrs.2019.1(81).13

Abstract

The paper states that various emergencies may occur at nuclear power plants under different negative conditions. Such emergencies pose a significant risk for the natural environment, health of personnel and the public of the adjacent territories. There are examples of the major accidents at NPPs worldwide, which lead to serious radiation contamination of the environment. It is noted that one of the main tasks of the Energoatom in the sphere of emergency preparedness and civil defense in the nearest future is to improve the systems and equipment, engineering, software and hardware support of the emergency preparedness and response system dealing with NPP emergencies. The improvement of this system requires the knowledge of causation chains of emergency progression in specific conditions. Therefore, the paper is devoted to the in-depth analysis of possible causes of different emergencies at NPPs that will allow the development of new and more efficient approaches and methods of their prevention. There is a definition of emergencies and their main types. The researchers analyzed a number of references on the studies in civil defense of radiation hazardous facilities and presented that despite the implementation of technologies and automated NPP monitoring systems, the threat of potentially hazardous situations remains relevant. Besides, the most significant are the emergencies that cause radioactive and chemical contamination of the environment. The paper provides the dynamics of emergencies in Ukraine and experience of applying the IAEA Unified System for Information Exchange in Incidents and Emergencies (USIE). It describes the main operational events at Ukrainian NPPs in 2017 and presents the distribution of operational events at Ukrainian and Russian NPPs. There are safety factors considering national regulatory documents and IAEA recommendations to assess the current safety level of NPP unit and the main causes of emergencies on NPP sites. The example of SUNPP-2 shows the quantitative characteristics of internal and external impacts on its safety. Provides an example of the system for prevention and mitigation of emergencies at Ukrainian NPPs, as well as lists its main tasks.

https://doi.org/10.32918/nrs.2019.1(81).13

References

1. DK 019: 2010. Emergency Classifier. Replacement of DK 019-2001 [Klasyfikator nadzvychainykh sytuatsii. — Na zaminu DK 019-2001], valid since 01 January 2011, Kyiv, Derzhspozhyvstandart of Ukraine, 2010, 19 p. (Ukr)

2. Mikhailov, L., Solomin, V. (2011), “Natural, Man-Made and Social Emergencies and Protection from Them” [Chrezvychainyie situatsii prirodnogo, tekhnogennogo i sotsial’nogo kharaktera I zashchita ot nikh], St. Petersburg, 235 p. (Rus)

3. Taraduda, D., Dement, M. (2016), “Approach to the Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of Occurrence of Emergencies Associated with Terrorist Acts at Radiation Hazardous Objects” [Pidkhid do kilђkisnoi otsinky nebezpeky vynyknennia nadzvychainykh sytuatsii, povђiazanykh z terorystychnymy aktamy na radiatsiino nebezpechnykh obђiektakh], Problems of Emergencies, No. 24, pp. 126–132. (Ukr)

4. Ji Tae Kim, Jooyoung Park, Jonghyun Kim, Poong Hyun Seong (2018), “Development of a Quantitative Resilience Model for Nuclear Power Plants”, Annals of Nuclear Energy, No. 122, pp. 175–184.

5. Pogosov, O., Derevianko, O. (2017), “NPP Physical Protection and Information Security as Necessary Conditions for Reducing Nuclear and Radiation Accident Risks” [Fizychnyi zakhyst AES ta informatsiina bezpeka yak neobkhidni umovy znyzhennia ryzykiv yadernykh i radiatsiynykh avarii], Nuclear and Radiation Safety, No. 3(75), pp. 50–55. (Ukr)

6. Raskob, W., Gering, F., Lochard, J., Nisbet, A., Starostova, V., Tomic, B. (2011), “Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Rehabilitation Strategies: Towards a EU Approach for Decision Support Tools”. Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume 241, No. 9, pp. 3395–3402.

7. Arrangements for the Termination of a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-11, 189 p., available at: https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/PUB1796_web.pdf

8. International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale, available at: https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/ines.pdf

9. IAEA Annual Report for 2017, Vienna, IAEA, 160 р., available at: https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/publications/reports/2017/gc62-3.pdf.

10. Nedbay, S., Vorontsov, D., Horpynchenko, O., Pecherytsia, O. (2016), “The Analysis of Operational Events at Ukrainian NPPs during 2015 and the First Six Months of 2016” [Rezulђtaty analizu porusheni), yaki stalysia protiahom 2015 — pershoho pivrichchia 2016 rokiv na AES Ukrainy], Nuclear and Radiation Safety, No. 3(71), pp. 15–18, available at: https://doi.org/10.32918/nrs.2016.3(71).03 (Ukr)

11. Report on the State of Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Ukraine in 2017 [Dopovid pro stan yadernoii ta radiatsiinoii bezpeky v Ukraini u 2017 rotsi], available at: http://www.snrc.gov.ua/nuclear/doccatalog/document?id=389980 (Ukr)

12. Main Provisions of the Organization of Preparedness and Response System of the Energoatom to Accidents and Emergencies at NPPs [Osnovni polozhennia orhanizatsii systemy hotovnosti ta reahuvannia DP NAEK “Enerhoatom” na avarii ta nadzvychaini sytuatsii na AES], Energoatom, Kyiv, 2018, 79 p. (Ukr)

13. On Approval of the Requirements for the Periodic Safety Review of NPP Units [Pro zatverdzhennia Vymoh do periodychnoi pereotsinky bezpeky enerhoblokiv atomnykh stantsii], available at: http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z1158-17 (Ukr)

14. South-Ukraine NPP. Unit 2. Report on Periodic Safety Review “Comprehensive Safety Analysis”, 23.2.95.OPPB.00 Version 0.1.” [Yuzhno-Ukrainskaia AES. Energoblok № 2. Otchiot o periodicheskoi pereotsenke bezopasnosti “Kompleksnyy analiz bezopasnosti” 23.2.95. OPPB.00 Versiia 0.1.], 2014. 150 p. (Rus)

15. Emergency Response System of Rivne NPP [Systema avariinoho reahuvannia VP Rivnenska AES], available at: https://www.rnpp.rv.ua/emergency-response.html (Ukr)

16. Popov, O., Yatsyshyn, A. (2017), “Mathematical Tools to Assess Soil Contamination by Deposition of Technogenic Emissions”, Soil Science Working for a Living, Cham. Springer, pp. 127–137.

17. Shkitsa, L., Yatsyshyn, T., Popov, A., Artemchuk, V. (2013), “Forecasting Spreading of Contaminating Agents in the Atmosphere on the Territory of a Drilling Unit” [Prognozirovaniie rasprostraneniia zagriazniaiushchikh veshestv v atmosfere na territorii burovoi ustanovki], Oil Industry, No. 11, pp. 136–140. (Rus)

18. Popov, O., Іatsyshyn, A., Kovach, V., Artemchuk, V., Taraduda, D., Sobyna, V., Sokolov D., Dement M., Yatsyshyn T. (2018), “Conceptual Approaches to the Development of Informational and Analytical Expert System for Assessing the NPP impact on the Environment” [Kontseptualђni pidkhody stvorennia informatsiino-analitychnoi ekspertnoi systemy dlia otsinky vplyvu AES na dovkillia], Nuclear and Radiation Safety, No. 3(79), pp. 56–54. (Ukr) Doi http://doi.org/10.32918/nrs.2018.3(79).09