Liquid Radioactive Solidification Technologies


liquid radioactive waste, cementation, contact hardening binders, volumetric characteristics of cement stone, immobilization of liquid radioactive waste

How to Cite

Svidersky, V., Glukhovsky, V., Glukhovsky, I., & Dashkova, T. (2019). Liquid Radioactive Solidification Technologies. Nuclear and Radiation Safety, (1(81), 68-74.


This review provides a brief analysis of familiar and tested technologies of liquid radioactive waste solidification. The technologies of bituminization, vitrification and incorporation of radioactive waste into the polymer matrix are considered. The paper presents the efficiency indices of the conventional cementation technology and sets forth the results of calculating the cost of components for cementing liquid radioactive waste of various concentrations. Besides, there are results of calculating the volumetric characteristics of cement stone for water-cement relations used for cementing liquid radioactive waste. The review includes the results based on the development and implementation of solidification technologies for liquid radioactive waste using contact-hardening binders that form a durable waterproof stone at the time of pressing and do not require additional water for curing. Generated compounds for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste from nuclear power plants are tested to identify their strength characteristics, resistance to irradiation and leaching parameters. The paper covers the calculation of the cost of components for the solidification of liquid radioactive waste of various concentrations. The developed technology of liquid radioactive waste solidification allows obtaining compounds with strength up to 40 MPa. The volume of the final product is increased by 1.8 times, and the leaching rate is in the range of 1.10×10–4…9.5×10–5 kg/m2 per day.


1. Sorokin, V., Safutin, V., Shvedov, A., et al. (2001), “Environmental Problems of Radioactive Waste Management” [Ekologicheskiie problem obrashcheniia s radioaktivnymi otkhodami], Radiation Safety, Ecology — Nuclear Power, IV International Conference, St. Petersburg,78–80 pp. (Rus)

2. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy of Ukraine [Stratehiia povodzhennia z radioaktyvnymy vidkhodamy v Ukraiini], Order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, No. 990-r, 19 August 2009. (Ukr)

3. Serbin, V., Glukhovsky, V., Sorokin, V., and others (1993), “Radioactive Waste Disposal” [Zakhoroneniie radioaktivnykh otkhodov], Kyiv, P. 36. (Rus)

4. International Atomic Energy Agency. Handling and Processing of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications, TRS No. 402, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2001.

5. Ojovan, M., Lee, W., (2014) “An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation”, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, P. 231.

6. Pichurin, S., Novikov, A., Tansky, S., (2000) “Some Thoughts about the Ways of Implementing the Radioactive Waste Management Program in Ukraine”, [Nekotoryie razmyshleniia o putiakh realizatsyi programmy obrashcheniia s radioaktivnymi otkhodami v Ukraine], “Nuclear Energy and Industry of Ukraine”. Kyiv, 14–17 pp. (Rus)

7. Jantzen, C., Lee, W., Ojovan, M., (2013), “Radioactive Waste (RAW) Conditioning, Immobilization and Encapsulation Processes and Technologies: Overview and Advances, Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-up”, 171–272 pp.

8. Martynov, B., (1993) “Radioactive Waste Management” [Obrashcheniie s radioaktivnymi otkhodami], Kyiv, Tekhnika, P. 107. (Rus)

9. Pavlushkin, N., (1983) “Chemical Technology of Glass and Crystalline Glass” [Khimicheskaia tekhnoligiia stekla i sitallov], Moscow, Stroiizdat, P. 432. (Rus)

10. GOST 23732-79. Water for Concrete and Mortar. Specifications, [Voda dlia betonov y rastvorov. Tekhnicheskie usloviia]. (Rus)

11. Taylor, H. F. W., (1996) “Cement Chemistry” [Khimiia tsementa], Moscow, Mir, P. 560. (Rus)

12. Glukhovsky, V., (1979) “Alkaline and Alkaline — Alkali-Earth Hydraulic Binder and Concrete” [Shchelochnyie i shchelochnoshchelochnozemel’nyie gidravlicheskiie viazhushchiie i betony], Kyiv, Vyshcha shkola, P. 232. (Rus)

13. Sidersky, V., Glukhovsky, V., Glukhovsky, I., (1998) “Low-Energy Technology for Purifying Liquid Radioactive Waste by the Method of Polycondensation and Their Compacting Using Organomineral Binding Agents of Contact Curing”, [Nyz’koenerhoiemna tekhnolohiia ochyshchennia ridkykh radioaktyvnykh vidkhodiv metodom polikondensatsii ta yikh kompaktuvannia z vykorystanniam orhanomineral’nykh v’yazhuchykh rechovyn kontaktnoho tverdinnia]. Proceedings of the Workshop on Scientific and Technological Developments in Liquid Radioactive Waste Management, Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, 4–6 pp. (Ukr)

14. Glukhovsky, I., Shumeiko, V., Ovrutsky, V., Glukhovsky, V., Matorin, E., (1998) “Modern Technologies of Processing and Disposal of Hazardous Waste Products” [Suchasni tekhnolohii zneshkodzhennia ta utylizatsii nebezpechnykh vidkhodiv vyrobnytstva]. Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine, Kyiv, P. 45. (Ukr)

15. Shumeiko, V., Glukhovsky, I., Ovrutsky, V., Glukhovsky, V., and others (1998), “Ecological Toxicology” [Ekolohichna toksykolohiia], Kyiv, Stolytsia Publishing House, P. 204. (Ukr)

16. Glukhovsky, V., Shumeiko, V., Ovrutsky, V., Glukhovsky, V., and others (1997), “Ecotoxicological Efficiency Evaluation of Processing of the Luhansk Pipe Plant Waste by Compacting” [Ekotoksykolohichna otsinka efektyvnosti pererobky vidkhodiv vyrobnytstva Luhans’koho trubnoho zavodu shliakhom kompaktuvannia], Ecological Toxicology on the Threshold of the XXI Century. Kyiv, Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine, 99–101 pp. (Ukr)