The methods of calibration and parameters measurements of radioactive waste monitors with the purpose to provide the unity and required precision of the characterization of waste activity measurements are reviewed. The monitors based on HPGe detectors are intended for small, medium and large volumes of radioactive waste and are equipped with rotation mechanisms for the barrel with strain-gauge balance and actuator for horizontal shifting, dosimeters for dose rate measurement, software and accounting system by bar code.
The required range of the measured activity which is necessary for the operation of the spectrometric section without overloadings is ensured by removal or approaching of the barrel to the detector and position change of the vertical lead shields of the collimator. The rotation of the barrel with RAW ensures decreasing the measurement error at the presence of the heterogeneities by density of the filler and inequalities of activity distribution by the barrel volume. The monitors have different mechanisms and accessories for the measurements in various modes.
The calibration of the monitors by the registration efficiency is performed using standard sources in point geometry as well as by the complex calculation of the efficiencies curves by Monte Carlo simulation method. For calibration of the monitors by the method of direct comparison the volumetric activities sources in real 200, 400 and 700 l barrels with matrix-fillers placed inside were manufactured and certified. The manufactured volumetric measures of activity have been certificated at the All-Russian Research Institute of Metrology named after D. I. Mendeleev.
An integral part of the metrological support of all developed RAWmonitors is their software, features of which are being considered.
2. Classification of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Guide. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-1, Vienna, 2009.
3. Reilly, D., Ensslin, N., Smith, H. Jr., Kreiner, S. (March 1991,) Passive Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Materials. United States: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, p. 699.
4. Verbytskyi, V.V. (2010), “RAW Charachterization and Certification. Environmental Safety” [Kharakterizatsiya I pasportizatsiya RAO. Bezopasnost okruzhayuschey sredy], No. 3: Scientific and Technological Provision of Nuclear Field, Available online [25.07.2018] http://www.atomic-energy.ru/technology/35146. (Rus)
5. Kononov, V.V., Tikhonovsky, V.L. (2013), “Characterization of Radioactive Waste: Tasks and Practice” [Kharakterizatsiya radioaktivnykh otkhodov: zadachi I praktika], Naukograd Researches, No1(3), pp. 59–62. (Rus)
6. Canberra Gamma Waste Systems. Available online [20.07.2018] http://www.canberra.com/products/waste_safeguard_systems/gammawaste-systems.asp.
7. OrtecAmetec ISO-CART-85 Mobile Assay System.Available online [20.07.2018] http://www.ortec-online.com/products/radiochemistry-healthphysics-research-industrial/waste-assay-systems/iso-cart-85.
8. ANTECH Radioactive Waste Measurement. Available online [20.07.2018] https://www.antech-inc.com/product-categories/radioactive-waste-measurement/.
9. NUVIA CZ Radioactive Waste Cherecterization. Available online [20.07.2018] http://www.nuvia.cz/en/sluzby/71-radioactivewaste-characterization
10. Radioactice Waste and Radiation Sources [Radioaktivnyie otkhody i istochniki ioniziruyeschchego izlucheniya], Available online [20.07.2018] http://ru.vf.eu/radioactive-waste-management/. (Rus)
11. Baltic Scientific Instruments Company. Available online [20.07.2018]www.bsi.lv.
12. Sokolov, A., Kail, A., Finkel, F., Gostilo, V. “Development of Waste Assay Monitors Based on HPGedetectors”, (to be published in Nuclear Technology& Radiation Protection, Serbia).
13. Tishkov, V. P. (2010), “Organization and Performance of the Branch Intercalibration of Equipment and Control Methods among Laboratories Ensuring Inventory of the Facilities State and Comprehensive Engineering and Radiation Survey” [Organizatsiya I provedeniye otraslevoy interkalibratsii apparatury i metodov kontrolya sredi laboratoriy, obespechivayushchikh inventarizatsiyu sostoyaniya ob»yektov i kompleksnoye inzhenerno-radiatsionnoye obsledovaniye], 4th All-Russian workshop “State Accounting and Control System of RAW”, SPb. (Rus)
14. Gavrilov, P. M., Kokhomskiy, A. G., Izmestyev, K. M., Seelev, I. N., Silayev, M. E. (2007), “Gamma-Spectrometric Control Method for activity of the Nuclide Composition of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Waste” [Gamma-spektrometricheskiy metod kontrolya aktivnosti nuklidnogo sostava nizkoaktivnykh tverdykh radioaktivnykh otkhodov], Tomsk Politechnic University News, Vol. 310, No. 2, pp. 99–102. (Rus)
15. ISO 19017:2015. Guidance for gamma spectrometry measurement of radioactive waste. 2015-12. Available online [20.07.2018] https://www.iso.org/standard/63746.html.
16. “LSRM” Software”, Available online [20.07.2018] http://www.lsrm.ru/products.
17. Panov, E. A., (1990), “Practical Gamma Spectrometry at NPPs” [Prakticheskaya gamma spektrometriya na atomnykh stantsiyakh], Energoatomizdat, p. 75. (Rus)
18. Bagayev, K. A., Kozlovsky, S. S., Novikov, I. E. (2007), “Application for Simulation of 3-Dimentional Modelling of Ionizing Radiation Detection and Registration Systems Based on the Advanced Graphycal Interface” [Programma dlya imitatsionnogo trekhmernogo modelirovaniya sistem detektirovaniya i registratsii ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya na baze razvitogo graficheskogo interfeysa], ANRI Journal, No. 4 pp. 35–40. (Rus)
19. Finkel, F. V., Rebyakova, V. A., Spirin, D. O. (2016), “Application of the Monte Carlo Method for Spectrometer Calibration to Determine the Surface Activity of Radionuclides Deposited on the Ground”, Physics of Atomic Nuclei.. Vol. 79, No. 9–10., pp. 1424–1428.
20. Dimov, Yu. V., (2010), “Metrology, Standardization and Certification” [Metrologiya, standartizatsiya i sertifikatsiya], SPb, Piter, 464 p. (Rus)
21. Tishkov, V. P., Stepanov, A. V., Kostandov, K. A., Savelyeva, I. M., Vasilyev, S. K., Yakushev, M. F., Martynov, E. M., Malkin, A. L., Ignatov, A. A., Pustynskiy, V. Ya, Sepman, S. V. (27 September — 1 October 2004), “Installation for Gamma-Spectrometric Analysis of RAW Packages Content” [Ustanovka dlya gamma-spektrometricheskogo analiza soderzhimogo upakovok RAO], VII International Conference “Safety of Nuclear Technologies. Radioactive Waste Management”, St. Perterburg, Russia, collection of papers, 438 p. (Rus)
22. All-Russian Scientific and Research Metrological Institute named after D. I. Mendeleev. Available online [20.07.2018] http://www.vniim.ru